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【中国音乐史】乐语视域下的“琵琶之‘饮’”与“马上相‘催’”

陈 明

摘 要:从广义而言,唐诗“葡萄美酒夜光杯,欲饮琵琶马上催”属于音乐文学的范畴。而长期以来,该诗句多被解读为“正欲痛饮葡萄美酒,忽然传来琵琶声,催促将士们马上出征”或“夜光杯装着葡萄美酒,马背上传来琵琶声,催促将士们痛饮”。凡此种种,皆是基于字表层面的“望文生义”,从根本上缺乏在乐语视域下对琵琶这件乐器与“饮”“催”二字之关联性的研究。

关键词:欲饮琵琶马上催;音乐;文学;乐语;考据

With the Musical Language interpretation of “Yu Yin Pipa Ma Shang Cui”

CHEN Ming

Abstract: Broadly speaking, the poetry of the Tang Dynasty that “Putao Meijiu Yeguangbei, Yu Yin Pipa Ma Shang Cui" (Wine glowing in the luminous jade cups, want to drink pipa immediately reminders) belongs to the scope of music literature. But for a long time, this verse has been interpreted as “just want to drink good wine, suddenly heard pipa sound, urging the soldiers immediately go on expedition” or “Luminous cup filled with good grape wine, there was someone strum pipa on horseback, urging the soldiers to drink their fill”. All of these were based on the words surface level of “Wang Wen Sheng Yi” (means to interpret the words without understanding their real meaning), fundamentally it was lacking in the context of musical language to research the two Chinese characters of “Yin” (drinking) and “Cui” (urge) relevance to the instrument pipa.

Key Words: Yu Yin Pipa Ma Shang Cui, music, literature, musical language, textual research