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【中国传统音乐】孟姜女调“拟母曲”及变体探微

吴 璨

摘要:孟姜女故事自春秋伊始至今,流传不息。围绕孟姜女故事的民歌传唱,逐步形成独具特色的孟姜女调。文章以《中国民间歌曲集成》中的近370首孟姜女调为曲谱材料,对其进行详尽的旋律学分析,析出江苏民歌《孟姜女》为该调系“拟母曲”的合理性,进一步对其曲调的几种变体形式给予归纳研究,得出一首曲调是否属于孟姜女调的“不变”要素是“特性音调”和“各句落音”;并在“不变”的基础上归纳出孟姜女调中不同的变体形式。这一研究,梳理了同宗民歌的流变和分化布局,是对孟姜女文化现象的一个重要补充。

关键词:孟姜女调;拟母曲;变体;江苏民歌《孟姜女》

Research in Detail Of Tune of Meng Jiangnü “Ni MuQu” with its Variant

WU Can

Abstract:The story of Meng Jiangnü has spread from the Spring and Autumn Period till today. The folk songs around the story of Meng Jiangnü gradually form an unique tune of Meng Jiangnü. With nearly 370 tunes of Meng Jiangnü in the Collection of Chinese Folk Songs as score materials, this paper analyzed their melodies in details and got rationality that Jiangsu folk song Meng Jiangnü being the “ni mu qu” of this series tunes. Further summarized studied several variants of the tune, it concluded that the “unchanged” element being the “characteristic tone” and “arrival point of each sentence” for judging a song whether belong to the tune of Meng Jiangnü; and on the basis of “unchanged” summed up the different variant forms of the tune of Meng Jiangnü. This study, sorting out the evolution and differentiation layout of the folk songs share the same clans, is an important complement to the cultural phenomenon of Meng Jiangnü.

Key Words: tune of Meng Jiangnü, ni mu qu, variant, Jiangsu folk song Meng Jiangnü